Ideological Representations in Chinese Mathematics Textbooks during the Cultural Revolution Decade: A Relational Analysis of Selected Textbooks from 1966"“1976


  • Song A. An
  • Mary Margaret Capraro
  • Haiping Hao


The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (GPCR) was a violent mass movement that took place in China from1966 to 1976. Four different versions of Chinese mathematics textbooks extensively used during the GPCR were analyzed. These books were analyzed for ideological representations using Grounded Theory (Strauss & Corbin, 2008) and relational analysis (Apple, 2004). The results showed that the ideological content was presented through pictorial, verbal, and numerical representations. Throughout all the ideological content, the cult personality of Chairman Mao and the struggles between the working and the exploiting classes were the two strongest themes. Students who were afforded opportunities to receive an education in Chinese schools during this period were possibly impacted by this political movement because their mathematics textbooks contained numerous citing of political or ideological related content.

Author Biographies

Song A. An

Song A. An is a PhD candidate in the Department of Teaching, Learning, and Culture at Texas A&M University. His research interests are interdisciplinary curriculum development and lesson design.

Mary Margaret Capraro

Mary Margaret Capraro is an Associate Professor of Mathematics Education at Texas A & M University. She has over 45 peer-reviewed publications. Her research interests include teacher knowledge and preparation in mathematics education. She is currently Co-PI of the Aggie STEM Center and works extensively with public school teachers.

Haiping Hao

Haiping Hao is a PhD student in the department of Teaching Learning and Culture at Texas A&M University. Her research interests are teaching expertise, teacher education, early childhood education, and multicultural education.






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